Time: 5 - 8 hr
Distance: 19.4 km
Regarded as the best one-day hike in New Zealand, the Tongariro Alpine Crossing is a rewarding but challenging 19.4km (12 mile) hike, which crosses an active volcanic landscape. The hike requires a good level of fitness and with proper preperation, can be completed independently and unguided from November to May - although guided trips are also available and recommended for those not comfortable hiking on their own across rugged terrain.
The following approved Tongariro Alpine Crossing guiding companies operate from our villages:
In winter, May to October, expect very cold temperatures, ice, snow and avalanche risk - this means alpine skills and experience are essential, so it's best to go with a guide or choose another track.
Getting there: Hop on a shuttle
There are 4-hour parking restrictions at both the Mangatepopo and Ketetahi road ends to allow for those doing short walks. However, if you are intending on hiking the entire Tongariro Alpine Crossing, it's best to catch a return shuttle from a licensed operator in either National Park Village or Whakapapa Village.
The Tongariro Alpine Crossing requires proper preparation and you need to be ready for a long, challenging day. The New Zealand Mountain Safety Council has great advice on preparing for day hikes like the Tongariro Alpine Crossing and has prepared the video below to help you complete the Tongariro Alpine Crossing safely:
Tongariro Alpine Crossing route guide
See below for a step-by-step guide of the different sections of the Tongariro Alpine Crossing:
Mangatepopo Valley to Soda Springs
Time: 1 - 1 hr 30 min
Beginning at the Mangatepopo Road end (7 kilometres off of SH47), the track makes its way up the Mangatepopo Valley. The Mangatepopo hut and campsite is along a short side track 20 minutes from the parking area. Continuing at a gentle gradient the main track climbs alongside a stream and around the edges of old lava flows.
It is generally believed that the Mangatepopo Valley was glacially carved out during the last ice age and subsequently partially in-filled by lava flows from Ngauruhoe.
Water in Mangatepopo Stream is not suitable for drinking - it contains significant levels of dissolved minerals from the volcanic rock the water passes through on the way to the surface.
Note the different colours on the lava flows as you walk up the valley. The surface colour of younger lava is darker and absorbs much of the sun's heat - this is a harsh environment for plants to grow and the reason why the youngest flows only have a few plants, lichens and moss. The older flows have progressively more species and large plants, which take advantage of the slow build up of precious soil. The vegetation has also been modified by fire and farming.
Side trip: Soda Springs
Time: 15 min return
Near the head of the Mangatepopo Valley a short sidetrack leads to the cold water Soda Springs, which seep to the surface in a boggy area at the head of the stream. The springs are an oasis for the moisture loving yellow buttercups (Ranunculus insignis).
The rocks at and below the springs are coloured golden by iron oxide, from the breakdown of volcanic ash in the bog. The water is slightly charged with dissolved gases and this effervescent quality inspired the name.
Soda Springs to South Crater
Time: 1 hr
The track climbs steadily, gaining 340 m from Soda Springs to South Crater. You cross over two lava flows from eruptions in 1870 and two pyroclastic flows from 1975. On a clear day there are magnificent views from this section of track, as far as Mount Taranaki on the west coast.
At the top of the climb the Tongariro Alpine Crossing continues east across South Crater.
South Crater to Red Crater
Time: 45 min - 1 hr
Follow the poled route across South Crater to a ridge leading up Red Crater. South Crater is not a real crater but a basin that may have been glacially carved, and has since filled with sediment from the surrounding ridges. An explosion pit in the southeast part of the crater formed around 14,000 years ago. The lava seen from Ngauruhoe dates back to the 1870 eruption.
As you walk up the ridge to Red Crater you can smell sulphur, evidence that Red Crater is still active. Enjoy the spectacular view to the east over the Kaimanawa Forest Park and Desert Road.
Looking into Red Crater notice the unusual formation within, known as a 'dike'. This feature was formed as molten magma moved to the surface through a vertical channel in the crater wall. Having solidified at its outer surface, the dike was later left partially hollow when the magma drained from below. Being more resistant than the surrounding scoria, erosion by wind and rain has now left this structure exposed.
The red colour is from high temperature oxidation of iron in the rock. You can see old lava flows from Red Crater extending into Oturere Valley, South and Central Craters.
Red Crater to Emerald Lakes
Time: 10 - 20 min
The summit of Red Crater (1886 m) is the highest point on the Tongariro Alpine Crossing. From here the track descends steeply to Emerald Lakes and you can see across to the Blue Lake past the Central Crater.
The Emerald Lakes' brilliant colour is caused by minerals leaching from the adjoining thermal area. You can see thermal steaming around the Red Crater and Emerald Lakes.
The Maori name for the lakes is Ngarotopounamu meaning greenstone-hued lakes. The water is cold and acidic, and they freeze in winter.
Take care on the steep descent on loose stony terrain (scree).
The next two sections of the track go through the active volcanic zone, near Te Maari craters - the site of the 2012 volcanic eruptions. Observe the warning signs, and keep your stops to a minimum.
Emerald Lakes to old Ketetahi Shelter site
Time: 1 hr - 1 hr 30 min
The Tongariro Northern Circuit Great Walk to Oturere Hut branches off to the right at the lowest lake, while the Tongariro Alpine Crossing continues over Central Crater, a drainage basin rather than a true crater.
After a short climb out of Central Crater you can see Te Wai-whakaata-o-te-Rangihiroa / Blue Lake - this translates as Rangihiroa's mirror. Te Rangihiroa was the son of local chief Pakaurangi, and Te Maari (after whom the crater is named) was his sister. Te Rangihiroa is said to have explored the Tongariro volcanoes about AD 1750.
The Blue Lake is tapu (sacred) - do not swim in or eat food around the lake. From Blue Lake the track sidles around the flanks of North Crater (a cooled lava lake) and descends to the site of the former Ketetahi shelter, which was damaged in the volcanic eruptions in 2012 and since demolished and removed.
Here you can see excellent views of the steaming vents at Te Maari craters and evidence from the 2012 eruptions - impact craters near the track.
To protect the fragile soil and plants it's important that you stay on the formed track.
The Ketetahi Springs are on private land. Walking the Tongariro Alpine Crossing doesn't give you the right to access the springs - keep to the track.
Old Ketetahi Shelter site to Ketetahi bus park
Time: 1 hr 30 min - 2 hr
The track continues to descend through golden tussock-covered slopes to the forest section. The tree line is the end of the Active Volcanic Hazard Zone. There are fantastic views of lakes Rotoaira and Taupo to the north. The cool podocarp-hardwood forest and its bird life provides a final contrast on the long descent to the roadend.
At two points the track passes over the tongue of a lava flow from Te Maari Crater and for a distance follows alongside the Manga-a-te-tipua Stream (polluted with minerals from the Ketetahi Springs). Toward the end of the track you can take a short side track to see a waterfall.